Biological Nitrogen Removal Database

A manually curated data resource for microbial nitrogen removal


Experimental setup

Influent:Synthetic wastewater

Anammox system:Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND)

Anammox reactor:Sequencing batch reactor (SBR)


Culture taken from:Activated sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

Microorganism cultured:Bacillus subtilis A1


Electron donor:Ammonium sulphate

Electron acceptor:Oxygen


Experimental Information

Ammonia removal rate:3.52 mg L-1 h-1

Nitrate removal rate:nan

Ammonia Removal efficiency (%):58.4±4.3%

Nitrate Removal efficiency (%):nan

Total Nitrogen Removal (%):24.9 ± 4.4%

Carbon Source:Sodium acetate

Final products:Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide

Information about Article

Major findings:The heterotrophic nitrification/aerobic denitrification ability of A1 is approximately twice that of other Bacillus species. An open system inoculated with A1 was employed to treat high-strength urban wastewater and showed potential for industrial application.

Authors:Yang et al., 2011

Title:Isolation and nitrogen removal characteristics of an aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying-denitrifying bacterium, Bacillus subtilis A1

Pubmed link:Link

Full research link:Link

Abstract:Bacterium A1, isolated to enhance nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich wastewater in situ, exhibited an amazing ability to convert ammonium to gaseous nitrogen compounds under fully aerobic conditions, while growing autotrophically or heterotrophically. A1 was identified as Bacillus subtilis by morphological and physiological characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rDNA gene sequence. Nitrogen removal by A1 was analyzed in relation to the ammonium concentration, presence of organic carbon, carbon source, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). The nitrogen balance during 120 h of autotrophic growth in the presence of 104.12±1.27 mg/L NH4+N showed that 20.4±2.7% of NH4+N was removed as gaseous nitrogen compounds, and A1 removed 58.4±4.3% of NH4+N within 60 h of growth in acetate medium at a C/N of 6. A mean ammonium removal rate of 3.52 mg NH4+N/(L h) was achieved in an open wastewater system, indicating great potential of A1 for future full-scale applications.